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גיליונות חדשים (2007) של כתב העת Anthrozoos גיליונות חדשים (2007) של כתב העת Anthrozoos
07/10/2007
כתב-עת רב-תחומי לאינטראקציה בין אנשים ובעלי חיים. בכתב העת מחקרים ומאמרים אקדמיים מהעדכניים והחשובים ביותר בתחום, התורמים לעיצובו וחידושו.
מן המאמרים החדשים (גיליון 20 כרך 3):

Polito, R., Minero, M., Canali, E., & Verga, M. 2007. Pilot Study on Yearlings' Reactions to Handling in Relation to the Training Method. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 295-303.

Handling and training methods of horses, which specially emphasize the importance of understanding horse body language and the use of reinforcements, are often used in practice, yet their effects are not completely known. This study investigated whether the use of a sympathetic approach during the preparation for public auctions influenced the reactivity of young horses towards humans. Sixteen thoroughbred yearlings were prepared for the public auctions during one month: eight horses ("Control") were handled according to conventional practices, while the others ("Treated") were handled with two sessions of basic training based on body language. The reactivity of horses was assessed in the presence of an "unfamiliar person" and a "familiar person" inside the horse's box. The experimenter recorded the presence/absence of selected behaviors during seven observational moments: "approaching the box," "opening the box door," "entering the box," and four consecutive observations every thirty seconds. Reactivity of horses was ranked during the first experience of "bit," "grooming," "shower," and application of the "surcingle." Heart rate was telemetrically recorded during this final test. At the end of the auction preparation, "Treated" horses exhibited more "contact" (p = 0.08) and "lick" (p < 0.05) behaviors in the presence of a person. "Control" horses showed higher (non-significant) percentages of negative (more nervous) rankings during "bit," "grooming," and "surcingle" tests. Two "Control" horses showed aggressive behavior during the application of the surcingle and the test was interrupted to guarantee person and animal safety. In this pilot study, horses handled with a sympathetic approach showed less reactive behaviors compared with "Control" horses. It would be interesting to enlarge the sample size and assess if the use of non-coercive handling during the whole training period influences their welfare positively and for a long time
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Pagani, C., Robustelli, F., & Ascione, F. R. 2007. Italian Youths' Attitudes toward, and Concern for Animals. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 275-293
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This is the first comprehensive study of Italian youths'(9-18 years of age) attitudes and behaviors toward animals. Various aspects of child-animal relationships were analyzed, including pet ownership, pet attachment, pet loss, worries about pet, animal abuse (both perpetrated and witnessed), fears of animals, animals as a source of comfort, feelings toward road kill, and attitudes toward hunting, the use of furs and leather clothes, zoos, and the use of animals in circuses. Pupils from 12 schools anonymously completed a six-page self-administered questionnaire. From the total number of questionnaires received (about 2,200), 800 (403 F and 397 M) were randomly selected, which represented each school and all ages, and analyzed. Through this instrument numerous quantitative and qualitative data were obtained, some of which were also examined in the light of other significant aspects of Italian culture. One basic assumption underpinning this research is that attitudes and behaviors toward animals should always be investigated within a theoretical framework that also takes cultural context into consideration. On the whole, our results indicate that animals play an important role in Italian youths' lives, a role which many adults tend to underestimate. Though our approach is preeminently descriptive, our findings can provide hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

Ortega-Pacheco, A., Rodriguez-Buenfil, J. C., Bolio-Gonzalez, M. E., Sauri-Arceo, C. H., Jimenez-Coello, M., & Forsberg, C. L. 2007. A Survey of Dog Populations in Urban and Rural Areas of Yucatan, Mexico. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 261-274.

A survey in a major Mexican city (Merida) and three rural communities was conducted to generate information regarding the size and structure of the owned-dog populations and people's opinions about the dogs and how they took care of them. Household characteristics and dog population size, health and reproductive issues were compared between the two kinds of communities: urban and rural. A telephone survey was conducted in Merida city whereas personal interviews were used in the rural communities. Local veterinarians were also interviewed to evaluate their influence on the dog populations in Merida city. The ratio of people to dogs was 3.4:1 in the city, and 1.7:1 to 4.6:1 in the different rural communities. In general it was more common to find a dog-owning household in the city of Merida (72.8%) than in the rural areas (63.6%, 65.5% and 71.1%), and in the city more households had adequate fences to restrain dogs. Larger families were more likely to own a dog than small families. Households of medium socio-economic status had a significantly higher probability of owning a dog than households of low or high socio-economic status. Of the dogs in the city, 90.1% were vaccinated against rabies compared with 62.3% of the dogs in the rural communities. Most animals were intact; the frequency of neutering/spaying was 3.1% in Merida and 1.8% in the rural communities. Few private veterinary practitioners were involved in the control of dog overpopulation. It is concluded that dogs are popular pets both in urban and rural Yucatan. People's opinions about dogs and the level of supervision varied with socio-economic status, and people in the city provided better food, shelter and preventive medicine. The veterinary practitioners did little to promote the control of dog breeding or to reduce the relinquishing of unwanted dogs in the city. Better client education and the promotion of sterilization of pets at low cost would improve the situation.

Sims, V. K., Chin, M. G., & Yordon, R. E. 2007. Don't Be Cruel: Assessing Beliefs About Punishments for Crimes Against Animals. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 251-259.

Hypothetical scenarios depicting an act of animal abuse were given to 438 participants who rated the appropriateness of eight types of punishments. The predictive value of sex of participant, animal type, crime type (acute abuse or neglect), crime outcome (victim lives or dies), and sex of perpetrator for ratings of appropriate punishments was evaluated using a canonical correlation analysis. Sex of participant and animal type emerged as the two strongest predictors, suggesting participants tend to concentrate on the victim rather than the crime, and then use their own beliefs about that specific animal to make a decision regarding punishment. Among the various punishment types, participants placed the greatest importance on restricting the perpetrator's ability to adopt an animal in the future, rather than recommending rehabilitative measures. Also, mandatory counseling, a monetary fine, and jail time were desired. Exploratory analyses showed that early experience on a farm moderates the gender effect such that females who lived on a farm rated harsher punishments as more appropriate, whereas males who lived on a farm rated more lenient punishments as more appropriate.

Marino, L. & Lilienfeld, S. O. 2007. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: More Flawed Data and More Flawed Conclusions. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 239-251.

Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) is an increasingly popular choice of treatment for illness and developmental disabilities by providing participants with the opportunity to swim or interact with live captive dolphins. Two reviews of DAT (Marino and Lilienfeld [1998] and Humphries [2003]) concluded that there is no credible scientific evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention. In this paper, we offer an update of the methodological status of DAT by reviewing five peer-reviewed DAT studies published in the last eight years. We found that all five studies were methodologically flawed and plagued by several threats to both internal and construct validity. We conclude that nearly a decade following our initial review, there remains no compelling evidence that DAT is a legitimate therapy or that it affords any more than fleeting improvements in mood.
Nimer, J. & Lundahl, B. 2007. Animal-Assisted Therapy: A Meta-Analysis. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 225-238.
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been practiced for many years and there is now increasing interest in demonstrating its efficacy through research. To date, no known quantitative review of AAT studies has been published; our study sought to fill this gap. We conducted a comprehensive search of articles reporting on AAT in which we reviewed 250 studies, 49 of which met our inclusion criteria and were submitted to meta-analytic procedures. Overall, AAT was associated with moderate effect sizes in improving outcomes in four areas: Autism-spectrum symptoms, medical difficulties, behavioral problems, and emotional well-being. Contrary to expectations, characteristics of participants and studies did not produce differential outcomes. AAT shows promise as an additive to established interventions and future research should investigate the conditions under which AAT can be most helpful.

Bryant, B. K. & Donnellan, M. B. 2007. The Relation between Socio-Economic Status Concerns and Angry Peer Conflict Resolution Is Moderated by Pet Provisions of Support. Anthrozoos, 20(3): 213-223.
Conflict resolution is a critical skill required in peer relations, and anger retaliation is a problematic strategy for resolving conflict. Conflict resolution with peers in relation to socio-economic status (SES) concerns among boys was investigated. Of particular interest in this study was a test of the value of pet provision of feelings of importance and pride in relation to children's use of an aggressive style of conflict resolution with peers. One hundred and seven boys, in grades 3-7 (ages 8-13 years) participated in this study. Boys' self-reports of the extent to which their favorite pet made them feel important was of central interest. Three specific pet provisions of support were considered: a) a pet showing admiration and affection, b) a pet being an object of nurturance while providing companionship, and c) a pet providing an exclusive, intimate relationship by "listening" to a boy sharing of feelings. Results indicate that the pet provision of child self-enhancement provides a buffer to boys with SES concerns in relation to their use of anger retaliation with peers. Unlike pet provision of admiration with affection (i.e., child self-enhancement), pet provision of support as an "object" of child nurturance and enjoyable companionship was not related to anger retaliation among boys in general or among boys with SES concerns. This demonstration of differential effects of pet provisions of support attests to the importance of delineating what constitutes support and testing the function of different forms of support. Interpretation of findings include a discussion of theoretical perspectives proposed useful for understanding the role of pets in child development.



 
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כל הזכויות שמורות ליחידת חיות וחברה - תשס"ח 2007 ארינט בע"מ - פתרונות אינטרנט מתקדמים